Base on the following post: Could you tell me how you think the posting address

Based on the following post: Could you tell me how you think the posting address
Base on the following post:
Could you tell me how you think the posting addresses the Student Learning Outcome?
• Critically analyze the philosophical underpinnis of
nursing theories.
• Critique nursing’s conceptual models, grand theories, and
mid-range theories.
• Construct a nursing theory that represent current
professional nursing practice
the Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms as a Guide, What Would You Look for in an
Assessment Tool for Patient Symptoms?
Symptoms are at the core of
nursing care. Nearly all the work of nurses focuses on symptoms measuring them,
assessing factors influencing symptoms changes, and helping patients. The
theory of unpleasant symptoms (TOUS) was introduced to address the vital
aspects of symptoms experiences to improve the practice and research in nursing
(Lenz, 2018). The theory is considered a middle-range theory developed in 1994
and modified in 1997. The theory allows nurses to develop a framework for
symptom assessment. Lenz (2018) explains that it comprises three main
aspects of symptoms experienced by a patient: factors that influence the
symptoms and the experience of symptoms consequences. Symptoms can be multiple
or simultaneously measured in terms of intensity, duration, quality, and
distress (Srivastava, 2021). Onset and duration imply that symptoms vary in
intensity and timing, whereas distress and quality are involved in how the
patient feels. Therefore, an assessment tool should address intensity, timing,
distress, and quality and, if possible, go beyond patients’ symptoms.
Another focus of the assessment tool should be the one that
evaluates the patients’ symptoms in detail. Using TOUS to assess a patient’s
symptoms, the tool must allow the nurse to evaluate whether the symptoms
occurring together have similar or different causes. The tool ought to
permit a nurse to categorize influencing factors as either physiological,
psychological, or situational (Srivastava, 2021). Physiological factors to look
for include age, gender, or other variables related to illness. Physiological
factors for assessment include cognition and mood, which strongly influence the
symptoms. Situational factors to look for are those external to an individual
that impacts the patient’s physical and social environment. Thus, a nurse needs
to look for a structure tool that provides a comprehensive history and
addresses the possible psychological, physiological, and environmental
Consequently, the assessment tool chosen have to emphasize the
complexity of the symptoms while also indicating possible preventive
strategies. This is because the theory explains the three influencing
factors that affect symptom’s occurrence and how they are experienced. The
symptoms, in turn, affect the performances of an individual, which in the long
run influences the experiences of the symptom. It should also provide
instructions that promote patient self-monitoring and self-care.
The assessment tool must, additionally, explain the four models
of TOUS. The first is a nociceptive model of dyspnea evaluated by factors in
the environment that correspond individual to illness severity (Miksic et al.,
2018). The second is the symptom interpretation model that requires knowledge
in understanding and identification of the symptoms. The model of chronic
dyspnea monitors the physiological factors. Miksic et al. (2018) explain that
the symptom management model is the fourth model, an effective model for
control of symptoms. Patient experience of symptoms, control, and outcome of
the symptoms are interconnected.

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